Effects of amiodarone on short QT syndrome variant 3 in human ventricles: a simulation study

  • Cunjin Luo (Creator)
  • Kuanquan Wang (Creator)
  • Henggui Zhang (Creator)



    Abstract Background Short QT syndrome (SQTS) is a newly identified clinical disorder associated with atrial and/or ventricular arrhythmias and increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). The SQTS variant 3 is linked to D172N mutation to the KCNJ2 gene that causes a gain-of-function to the inward rectifier potassium channel current (I K1), which shortens the ventricular action potential duration (APD) and effective refractory period (ERP). Pro-arrhythmogenic effects of SQTS have been characterized, but less is known about the possible pharmacological treatment of SQTS. Therefore, in this study, we used computational modeling to assess the effects of amiodarone, class III anti-arrhythmic agent, on human ventricular electrophysiology in SQT3. Methods The ten Tusscher et al. model for the human ventricular action potentials (APs) was modified to incorporate I K1 formulations based on experimental data of Kir2.1 channels (including WT, WT-D172N and D172N conditions). The modified cell model was then implemented to construct one-dimensional (1D) and 2D tissue models. The blocking effects of amiodarone on ionic currents were modeled using IC50 and Hill coefficient values from literatures. Effects of amiodarone on APD, ERP and pseudo-ECG traces were computed. Effects of the drug on the temporal and spatial vulnerability of ventricular tissue to genesis and maintenance of re-entry were measured, as well as on the dynamic behavior of re-entry. Results Amiodarone prolonged the ventricular cell APD and decreased the maximal voltage heterogeneity (δV) among three difference cells types across transmural ventricular wall, leading to a decreased transmural heterogeneity of APD along a 1D model of ventricular transmural strand. Amiodarone increased cellular ERP, prolonged QT interval and decreased the T-wave amplitude. It reduced tissueâ s temporal susceptibility to the initiation of re-entry and increased the minimum substrate size necessary to sustain re-entry in the 2D tissue. Conclusions At the therapeutic-relevant concentration of amiodarone, the APD and ERP at the single cell level were increased significantly. The QT interval in pseudo-ECG was prolonged and the re-entry in tissue was prevented. This study provides further evidence that amiodarone may be a potential pharmacological agent for preventing arrhythmogenesis for SQT3 patients.
    Date made available7 Jun 2017


    • Arrhythmia
    • Short QT syndrome
    • Computer simulation
    • KCNJ2
    • D172N
    • Amiodarone

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