The impact of a disease management programme for type 2 diabetes on health-related quality of life: multilevel analysis of a cluster-randomised controlled trial

  • Sigrid Panisch (Creator)
  • Tim Johansson (Creator)
  • Maria Flamm (Creator)
  • Henrike Winkler (Creator)
  • Raimund Weitgasser (Creator)
  • Andreas Soennichsen (Creator)



Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease associated with poorer health outcomes and decreased health related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this analysis was to explore the impact of a disease management programme (DMP) in type 2 diabetes on HRQoL. A multilevel model was used to explain the variation in EQ-VAS. Methods A cluster-randomized controlled trial—analysis of the secondary endpoint HRQoL. Our study population were general practitioners and patients in the province of Salzburg. The DMP “Therapie-Aktiv” was implemented in the intervention group, and controls received usual care. Outcome measure was a change in EQ-VAS after 12 months. For comparison of rates, we used Fisher’s Exact test; for continuous variables the independent T test or Welch test were used. In the multilevel modeling, we examined various models, continuously adding variables to explain the variation in the dependent variable, starting with an empty model, including only the random intercept. We analysed random effects parameters in order to disentangle variation of the final EQ-VAS. Results The EQ-VAS significantly increased within the intervention group (mean difference 2.19, p = 0.005). There was no significant difference in EQ-VAS between groups (mean difference 1.00, p = 0.339). In the intervention group the improvement was more distinct in women (2.46, p = 0.036) compared to men (1.92, p = 0.063). In multilevel modeling, sex, age, family and work circumstances, any macrovascular diabetic complication, duration of diabetes, baseline body mass index and baseline EQ-VAS significantly influence final EQ-VAS, while DMP does not. The final model explains 28.9% (EQ-VAS) of the total variance. Most of the unexplained variance was found on patient-level (95%) and less on GP-level (5%). Conclusion DMP “Therapie-Aktiv” has no significant impact on final EQ-VAS. The impact of DMPs in type 2 diabetes on HRQoL is still unclear and future programmes should focus on patient specific needs and predictors in order to improve HRQoL. Trial registration Current Controlled trials Ltd., ISRCTN27414162
Date made available10 Apr 2018


  • Cluster randomised controlled trial
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • Disease management programme
  • Health related quality of life (EQ-5D-3L questionnaire)
  • Multilevel modeling
  • Sex-specific analysis

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