β Grain refinement by yttrium addition in Ti-6Al-4V Wire-Arc Additive Manufacturing

Jacob Kennedy, Alec Davis, Antonio Fernández Caballero, Nicholas Byres, S. Williams, Edward Pickering, Philip Prangnell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Wire-Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) of large near-net-shape titanium parts has the potential to reduce costs in aerospace applications. However, with titanium alloys, such as Ti-6Al-4V, conventional WAAM processing conditions generally result in epitaxial solidification from the melt pool fusion boundary, which over many layers can generate coarse cm-scale,<001>//ND fibre textured, columnar β grain structures within the deposited metal. The mechanical anisotropy caused by this coarse primary grain structure cannot be eliminated by subsequent solid-state phase transformations. In order to attempt to refine the size of the solidified β-grains and reduce their strong texture, the growth restriction efficiency of low addition levels of the strongly partitioning element (k = 0.1) yttrium (Y) has been investigated. Less than 0.8 wt.% Y was sufficient to reduce the widths of the solidified columnar β grains from 1 to 2 mm to 100–300 µm. Y was also found to induce a columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) in the latter stages of melt pool solidification, which benefits from a lower liquid thermal gradient and higher solidification velocity. Inter-dendritic segregation of Y was also found to be significant and oxygen scavenging led to the formation of Y2O3 particles in the inter-dendritic liquid, with a previously unreported irregular eutectic morphology. High-resolution EBSD analysis showed these particles exhibited specific orientation relationships with the solidified β grains, which were confirmed experimentally.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)162735
JournalJournal of Alloys and Compounds
Volume895
Early online date14 Nov 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Feb 2022

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