3D Carbon Microelectrodes with Bio-Functionalized Graphene for Electrochemical Biosensing

Suhith Hemanth, Arnab Halder, Claudia Caviglia, Qijin Chi, Stephan Sylvest Keller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


An enzyme-based electrochemical biosensor has been developed with 3D pyrolytic carbon microelectrodes that have been coated with bio-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The 3D carbon working electrode was microfabricated using the pyrolysis of photoresist precursor structures, which were subsequently functionalized with graphene oxide and enzymes. Glucose detection was used to compare the sensor performance achieved with the 3D carbon microelectrodes (3DCMEs) to the 2D electrode configuration. The 3DCMEs provided an approximately two-fold higher sensitivity of 23.56 µA·mM−1·cm−2 compared to 10.19 µA mM−1·cm−2 for 2D carbon in glucose detection using cyclic voltammetry (CV). In amperometric measurements, the sensitivity was more than 4 times higher with 0.39 µA·mM−1·cm−2 for 3D electrodes and 0.09 µA·mM−1·cm−2 for the 2D configuration. The stability analysis of the enzymes on the 3D carbon showed reproducible results over 7 days. The selectivity of the electrode was evaluated with solutions of glucose, uric acid, cholesterol and ascorbic acid, which showed a significantly higher response for glucose.
Original languageEnglish
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jul 2018


  • 3D carbon microelectrodes
  • Graphene oxide
  • Glucose
  • Electrochemical biosensor


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