Purpose: To develop a biocompatible denture base resin/ TiO2 nanocomposite material with antifungal characteristics that is suitable for 3D-printing denture bases.
Materials and methods: TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with a 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 weight percent (wt.%) were incorporated into a commercially available 3D-printed resin material. The resulting nanocomposite material was analyzed using Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and AlamarBlue (AB) assays for biocompatibility testing with human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). The composite material was also tested for its antifungal efficacy against Candida albicans. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) mapping were conducted to assess the surface coating and the dispersion of the NPs.
Results: LDH and AB assays confirmed the biocompatibility of the material showing cell proliferation at a rate of nearly 100% at day 10, with a cytotoxicity of less than 13% of the cells at day 10. The concentrations of 0.10, 0.25, and 0.50 wt.% caused a significant reduction (p<0.05) in the number of candida cells attached to the surface of the specimens (p<0.05), while 0.75 wt.% did not show any significant difference compared to the control (no TiO2 NPs) (p>0.05). FTIR and EDX analysis confirmed the presence of TiO2 NPs within the nanocomposite material with a homogenous dispersion for 0.10 and 0.25 wt.% groups and an aggregation of the NPs within the material at higher concentrations.
Conclusion: The addition of TiO2 NPs into 3D-printed denture base resin proved to have an antifungal effect against Candida albicans. The resultant nanocomposite material was a biocompatible material with HGFs and was successfully used for 3D printing.
- Denture base resin
- titanium dioxide
- additive manufacturing
- Candida albicans