9-Anthracene carboxylic acid is more suitable than DIDS for characterization of calcium-activated chloride current during canine ventricular action potential

Krisztina Váczi, Bence Hegyi, Ferenc Ruzsnavszky, Kornél Kistamás, Balázs Horváth, Tamás Bányász, Péter P Nánási, Norbert Szentandrássy, János Magyar

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Understanding the role of ionic currents in shaping the cardiac action potential (AP) has great importance as channel malfunctions can lead to sudden cardiac death by inducing arrhythmias. Therefore, researchers frequently use inhibitors to selectively block a certain ion channel like 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and 9-anthracene carboxylic acid (9-AC) for calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca)). This study aims to explore which blocker is preferable to study ICl(Ca). Whole-cell voltage-clamp technique was used to record ICa,L, IKs, IKr and IK1, while action potentials were measured using sharp microelectrodes. DIDS- (0.2 mM) and 9-AC-sensitive (0.5 mM) currents were identical in voltage-clamp conditions, regardless of intracellular Ca(2+) buffering. DIDS-sensitive current amplitude was larger with the increase of stimulation rate and correlated well with the rate-induced increase of calcium transients. Both drugs increased action potential duration (APD) to the same extent, but the elevation of the plateau potential was more pronounced with 9-AC at fast stimulation rates. On the contrary, 9-AC did not influence either the AP amplitude or the maximal rate of depolarization (V max), but DIDS caused marked reduction of V max. Both inhibitors reduced the magnitude of phase-1, but, at slow stimulation rates, this effect of DIDS was larger. All of these actions on APs were reversible upon washout of the drugs. Increasing concentrations of 9-AC between 0.1 and 0.5 mM in a cumulative manner gradually reduced phase-1 and increased APD. 9-AC at 1 mM had no additional actions upon perfusion after 0.5 mM. The half-effective concentration of 9-AC was approximately 160 μM with a Hill coefficient of 2. The amplitudes of ICa,L, IKs, IKr and IK1 were not changed by 0.5 mM 9-AC. These results suggest that DIDS is equally useful to study ICl(Ca) during voltage-clamp but 9-AC is superior in AP measurements for studying the physiological role of ICl(Ca) due to the lack of sodium channel inhibition. 9-AC has also no action on other ion currents (ICa,L, IKr, IKs, IK1); however, ICa,L tracings can be contaminated with ICl(Ca) when measured in voltage-clamp condition.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)87-100
    Number of pages14
    JournalNaunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2015


    • 4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid
    • Action Potentials
    • Animals
    • Anthracenes
    • Calcium
    • Calcium Channels, L-Type
    • Chloride Channels
    • Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels
    • Dogs
    • Female
    • Heart Ventricles
    • In Vitro Techniques
    • Male
    • Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying
    • Ventricular Function


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