A 1µW Radiation-Hard Front-End in a 0.18-µm CMOS Process for the MALTA2 Monolithic Sensor

F Piro, P Allport, I Asensi, I Berdalovic, D Bortoletto, C Buttar, R Cardella, E Charbon, F Dachs, V Dao, D Dobrijevic, M Dyndal, L Flores, A Gabrielli, L Gonella, T Kugathasan, M LeBlanc, K Oyulmaz, H Pernegger, P RiedlerM van Rijnbach, H Sandaker, C Solans, W Snoeys, T Suligoj, J Torres, S Worm

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this article, a low-power, radiation-hard front-end circuit for monolithic pixel sensors, designed to meet the requirements of low noise and low pixel-to-pixel variability, the key features to achieve high detection efficiencies, is presented. The sensor features a small collection electrode to achieve a small capacitance (<5 fF) and allows full CMOS in-pixel circuitry. The circuit is implemented in the 180-nm CMOS imaging technology from the TowerJazz foundry and integrated into the MALTA2 chip, which is part of a development that targets the specifications of the outer pixel layer of the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade at the LHC. One of the main challenges for monolithic sensors is a radiation hardness up to 10 15 1-MeV neq/cm2 non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) and 80 Mrad total ionizing dose (TID) required for this application. Tests up to 3⋅1015 1-MeV neq/cm2 and 100 Mrad were performed on the MALTA2 sensor and front-end circuit, which still show good performance even after these levels of irradiation, promising for even more demanding applications such as the future experiments at the high-luminosity large hadron collider (HL-LHC).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1299-1309
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2022


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