Radiotherapy given during treatment of oral and pharyngeal malignancy is frequently associated with colonization of the oral mucosa by Candida species. Treatment of these infections has included topical and systemic agents. In the present study 73 patients with oropharyngeal candidosis were treated with either amphotericin B (10 mg lozenges, four times daily for 14 days, 36 patients) or fluconazole (50 mg daily for 7 days, 37 patients). The yeasts most frequently isolated were C albicans and C glabrata. Clinical signs and symptoms showed improvement at end of treatment in 72% of patients who received amphotericin B compared with 92% of patients who received fluconazole. Mycological cure at end of treatment was achieved in 31% of the amphotericin B group and 46% of patients who received fluconazole. For both treatments the cure rate was less in denture wearers than in non denture wearers.