Oxidation of isoprene by nitrate radicals (NO3) or by hydroxyl radicals (OH) under high NOx conditions forms a substantial amount of organonitrates (ONs). ONs impact NOx concentrations and consequently ozone formation while also contributing to secondary organic aerosol. Here we show that the ONs with the chemical formula C4H7NO5 are a significant fraction of isoprene-derived ONs, based on chamber experiments and ambient measurements from different sites around the globe. From chamber experiments we found that C4H7NO5 isomers contribute 5%–17% of all measured ONs formed during nighttime and constitute more than 40% of the measured ONs after further daytime oxidation. In ambient measurements C4H7NO5 isomers usually dominate both nighttime and daytime, implying a long residence time compared to C5 ONs which are removed more rapidly. We propose potential nighttime sources and secondary formation pathways, and test them using a box model with an updated isoprene oxidation scheme.
- atmospheric chamber
- VOC oxidation