A generic mathematical model for gate-to-gate carbon emissions in laser materials processing

Muhammad Tajuddin Reduan, Paul Mativenga, Lin Li, Jinglei Ouyang, Nazanin Mirhosseini, Zhu Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The manufacturing industry needs to reduce carbon emissions in support of the net-zero agenda. Carbon emissions are classified into three operational groups based on the framework of the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol. Although extensive research has been undertaken, this has focused on energy consumption, which contributes to Scope 2 emissions only. In order to address a knowledge gap relating to the total environmental burden of laser material processing, the paper develops a generic mathematical model covering all three operational groups of emissions in relation to the gate-to-gate scope of life cycle assessment. The model was applied to selective laser removal of coating to evaluate the environmental burden and to understand which impact factor contributes the highest emissions. Scope 2 emissions had the highest contribution to the environmental burden in the laser removal of coatings from substrates compared to Scope 1 and 3. The mathematical model provides a simple, accessible and less complex tool for evaluating carbon emissions in laser processing. This supports the net-zero emission agenda.


  • 2 and 3 emissions
  • carbon emissions
  • greenhouse gases
  • laser cleaning
  • Laser material processing
  • Scope 1


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