A Genome-Wide Association Study Meta-Analysis of Alpha Angle Suggests Cam-Type Morphology May Be a Specific Feature of Hip Osteoarthritis in Older Adults

Benjamin G Faber, Monika Frysz, April E Hartley, Raja Ebsim, Cindy G Boer, Fiona R Saunders, Jennifer S Gregory, Richard M Aspden, Nicholas C Harvey, Lorraine Southam, William Giles, Christine L Le Maitre, J Mark Wilkinson, Joyce B J van Meurs, Eleftheria Zeggini, Timothy Cootes, Claudia Lindner, John P Kemp, George Davey Smith, Jonathan H Tobias

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: To examine the genetic architecture of cam morphology using alpha angle (AA) as a proxy measure and conduct an AA genome-wide association study (GWAS) followed by Mendelian randomization (MR) to evaluate its causal relationship with hip osteoarthritis (OA).

Methods: Observational analyses examined associations between AA measurements derived from hip dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans from the UK Biobank study and radiographic hip OA outcomes and subsequent total hip replacement. Following these analyses, an AA GWAS meta-analysis was performed (N = 44,214) using AA measurements previously derived in the Rotterdam Study. Linkage disequilibrium score regression assessed the genetic correlation between AA and hip OA. Genetic associations considered significant (P < 5 × 10−8) were used as AA genetic instrument for 2-sample MR analysis.

Results: DXA-derived AA showed expected associations between AA and radiographic hip OA (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.63 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.58, 1.67]) and between AA and total hip replacement (adjusted hazard ratio 1.45 [95% CI 1.33, 1.59]) in the UK Biobank study cohort. The heritability of AA was 10%, and AA had a moderate genetic correlation with hip OA (rg = 0.26 [95% CI 0.10, 0.43]). Eight independent genetic signals were associated with AA. Two-sample MR provided weak evidence of causal effects of AA on hip OA risk (inverse variance weighted OR 1.84 [95% CI 1.14, 2.96], P = 0.01). In contrast, genetic predisposition for hip OA had stronger evidence of a causal effect on increased AA (inverse variance weighted β = 0.09 [95% CI 0.04, 0.13], P = 4.58 × 10−5).

Conclusion: Expected observational associations between AA and related clinical outcomes provided face validity for the DXA-derived AA measurements. Evidence of bidirectional associations between AA and hip OA, particularly for risk of hip OA on AA, suggests that hip shape modeling secondary to a genetic predisposition to hip OA contributes to the well-established relationship between hip OA and cam morphology in older adults.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)900-909
Number of pages10
JournalArthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.)
Volume75
Issue number6
Early online date20 Jan 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2023

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