A mass balance model of the main Pb stores and fluxes for a typical organic-rich upland catchment in the Peak District, UK, has been produced. The model, based on the Howden reservoir catchment, reveals that the majority of Pb in the catchment is stored within the soil (approximately 8*63 t km-2). Soil Pb levels are extremely high and can only be explained as the result of centuries of atmospheric Pb deposition from surrounding urban-industrial conurbations, and mining and smelting activity within the Peak District National Park. The atmospheric Pb flux onto the Howden catchment is approximately 107 kg a-1. The aquatic Pb flux is estimated at between 29*9 and 71*7 kg a-1; thus, at present, catchment soils are acting as a sink for Pb pollution. The Howden reservoir acts as a secondary store for Pb eroded and leached from catchment soils, with approximately 80% re-deposited in its sediments. It is estimated that 2*3% of the catchment soil Pb pool has been retained in the reservoir sediments over its 91 year lifespan. Although the catchment is currently acting as a Pb sink, the rate of change in the soil Pb pool is very small. Future change in climate or deposition chemistry could, however, transform catchment soils into a significant source of Pb to the aquatic environment and water supply. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Peak District
- Reservoir sediments