A Numerical Thermo-Chemo-Flow Analysis of Thermoset Resin Impregnation in LCM Processes

Hatim Alotaibi, Chamil Abeykoon, Constantinos Soutis, Masoud Jabbari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper presents a numerical framework for modelling and simulating convection–diffusion–reaction flows in liquid composite moulding (LCM). The model is developed in ANSYS Fluent with customised user-defined-functions (UDFs), user-defined-scalar (UDS), and user-defined memory (UDM) codes to incorporate the cure kinetics and rheological characteristics of thermoset resin impregnation. The simulations were performed adopting volume-of-fluid (VOF)—a multiphase flow solution—based on finite volume method (FVM). The developed numerical approach solves Darcy’s law, heat transfer, and chemical reactions in LCM process simultaneously. Thereby, the solution scheme shows its ability to provide information on flow-front, viscosity development, degree of cure, and rate of reaction at once unlike existing literature that commonly focuses on impregnation stage and cure stage in isolation. Furthermore, it allows online monitoring, controlled boundary conditions, and injection techniques (for design of manufacturing) during the mould filling and curing stages. To examine the validity of the model, a comparative analysis was carried out for a simple geometry, in that the numerical results indicate good agreement—3.4% difference in the degree of cure compared with previous research findings.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1572
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 22 Mar 2023


  • CFD
  • cure kinetics
  • curing stage
  • filling stage
  • liquid composite moulding
  • rheology


Dive into the research topics of 'A Numerical Thermo-Chemo-Flow Analysis of Thermoset Resin Impregnation in LCM Processes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this