A Privacy-Preserving and Accountable Billing Protocol for Peer-to-Peer Energy Trading Markets

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


This paper proposes a privacy-preserving and accountable billing (PA-Bill) protocol for trading in peer-to-peer energy markets, addressing situations where there may be discrepancies between the volume of energy committed and delivered. Such discrepancies can lead to challenges in providing both privacy and accountability while maintaining accurate billing. To overcome these challenges, a universal cost splitting mechanism is proposed that prioritises privacy and accountability. It leverages a homomorphic encryption cryptosystem to provide privacy and employs blockchain technology to establish accountability. A dispute resolution mechanism is also introduced to minimise the occurrence of erroneous bill calculations while ensuring accountability and non-repudiation throughout the billing process. Our evaluation demonstrates that PA-Bill offers an effective billing mechanism that maintains privacy and accountability in peer-to-peer energy markets utilising a semi-decentralised approach.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInternational Conference on Smart Energy Systems and Technologies (SEST 2023)
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 27 Sept 2023

Publication series

Name2023 International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and Technologies, SEST 2023


  • Billing
  • Privacy
  • Accountability
  • Peer-to-peer Energy Market
  • Homomorphic Encryption
  • Blockchain


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