A Review: Challenges and Opportunities for Artificial Intelligence and Robotics in the Offshore Wind Sector

Daniel J Mitchell, Jamie Blanche, Sam Harper, Theodore Lim, Ranjeetkumar Gupta, Osama Zaki, Wenshuo Tang, Valenti Robu, Simon Watson, David Flynn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The UK has set plans to increase offshore wind capacity from 22GW to 154GW by 2030. With such tremendous growth, the sector is now looking to Robotics and Artificial Intelligence (RAI) in order to tackle lifecycle service barriers as to support sustainable and profitable offshore wind energy production. Today, RAI applications are predominately being used to support short term objectives in operation and maintenance. However, moving forward, RAI has the potential to play a critical role throughout the full lifecycle of offshore wind infrastructure, from surveying, planning, design, logistics, operational support, training and decommissioning. This paper presents one of the first systematic reviews of RAI for the offshore renewable energy sector. The state-of-the-art in RAI is analyzed with respect to offshore energy requirements, from both industry and academia, in terms of current and future requirements. Our review also includes a detailed evaluation of investment, regulation and skills development required to support the adoption of RAI. The key trends identified through a detailed analysis of patent and academic publication databases provide insights to barriers such as certification of autonomous platforms for safety compliance and reliability, the need for digital architectures for scalability in autonomous fleets, adaptive mission planning for resilient resident operations and optimization of human machine interaction for trusted partnerships between people and autonomous assistants. Our study concludes with identification of technological priorities and outlines their integration into a new ‘symbiotic digital architecture’ to deliver the future of offshore wind farm lifecycle management.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100146
JournalEnergy and AI
Early online date15 Feb 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2022


  • Artificial intelligence
  • Autonomous systems
  • Digitalization
  • Offshore renewable energy
  • Offshore wind farms
  • Robotics


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