A scoping review of outcomes related to orthodontic treatment measured in cleft lip and palate

A. Tsichlaki, K. O'Brien, A. Johal, P. S. Fleming

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The aim of this study was to identify and summarize the outcomes measured in orthodontic studies of children with cleft lip and/or palate. The objectives were to categorize the outcomes into pre-determined domains and to explore whether any domains were under-represented. Electronic databases and grey literature were searched until December 2016 to identify all studies of orthodontic treatment interventions in children and adolescents with cleft lip and palate. Abstracts and subsequently eligible full-text articles were screened independently and in duplicate by two reviewers. All reported outcome measures were identified and categorized into six predetermined outcome domains. The search identified 833 abstracts. The majority of studies did not assess orthodontic interventions and were therefore not eligible for inclusion. Consequently, following screening 71 eligible articles were retrieved in full, of which 40 met the inclusion criteria. Morphological features of malocclusion were measured in 27 studies (68%) and adverse effects of orthodontic treatment in 10 (25%). Functional status (n=4; 10%), physical consequences of malocclusion (n=3; 7.5%), quality of life (n=3; 7.5%) and health resource utilization (n=2; 5%) were rarely considered. Relatively few studies concerning patients with cleft lip and palate focused on orthodontic interventions. Most of the identified outcomes were concerned with measuring morphological treatment-related changes and do not reflect patient perspectives.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)55-64
Number of pages10
JournalOrthodontics and Craniofacial Research
Issue number2
Early online date17 Apr 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2017


  • cleft lip and palate
  • core outcome sets
  • orthodontics


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