A single-phase GPU-accelerated surface tension model using SPH

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This paper presents an accelerated single-phase surface tension smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) solver developed to run entirely on a graphics processing unit (GPU) capable of simulating millions of particles in three dimensions on a single GPU. The single-phase surface tension model is augmented with a contact line force to improve the prediction of the physics at the liquid-solid contact point. The surface tension model uses the modified dynamic boundary condition (mDBC) to impose no-slip conditions at the wall boundary. To enable simulations with millions of particles, the single-phase surface tension model has been implemented in the open-source SPH code DualSPHysics to exploit the GPU acceleration, paying special attention to the size of the kernel support and integration of the neighbour lists. The new scheme is validated using 2-D and 3-D test cases including drop deformation, drop oscillation, Rayleigh-Plateau instability and surface contact angles. The results show a good agreement with the analytical solutions with a standard spatial convergence behaviour. Profiling the new surface tension solver shows an additional computational complexity. The performance analysis shows that the new code has a speed up of up two orders of magnitude (x70-80) compared to the CPU-only code. Profiling the new CUDA kernels shows they have the near identical performance metrics with the main CUDA kernels in the original DualSPHysics solver.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109012
JournalComputer Physics Communications
Early online date14 Nov 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2024


  • Droplets
  • DualSPHysics
  • GPU
  • Smoothed particle hydrodynamics
  • SPH
  • Surface tension model


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