A Survey on Routing Solutions for Low-Power and Lossy Networks: Toward A Reliable Path-Finding

Hanin Almutairi, Ning Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Low-power and Lossy Networks (LLNs) have grown rapidly in recent years owing to the increased adoption of Internet of Things (IoT) and Machine-to-Machine (M2M) applications across various industries, including smart homes, industrial automation, healthcare, and smart cities. Owing to the characteristics of LLNs, such as lossy channels and limited power, generic routing solutions designed for non-LLNs may not be adequate in terms of delivery reliability and routing efficiency. Consequently, a Routing Protocol for LLNs (RPL) was designed. Several RPL objective functions have been proposed to enhance the routing reliability in LLNs. This paper analyses these solutions against performance and security requirements to identify their limitations. Firstly, it discusses the characteristics and security issues of LLN and their impact on packet delivery reliability and routing efficiency. Secondly, it provides a comprehensive analysis of routing solutions and identifies existing limitations. Thirdly, based on these limitations, this paper highlights the need for a reliable and efficient path-finding solution for LLNs.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 8 Jan 2024


  • Low-Power and Lossy Networks (LLNs)
  • Objective Functions
  • Packet Dropping Attacks (PDAs)
  • Routing
  • Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL)
  • Security


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