Accurate determination of S-phase fraction in proliferative cells by dual fluorescence and peroxidase immunohistochemistry with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and Ki67 antibodies.

R Tanaka, M Tainaka, T Ota, N Mizuguchi, H Kato, S Urabe, Y Chen, JM Fustin, Y Yamaguchi, M Doi, S Hamada, H Okamura

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To ensure the maintenance of tissues in mammals, cell loss must be balanced with cell production, the proliferative activity being different from tissue to tissue. In this article, the authors propose a new method for the quantification of the proliferative activity, defined as the S-phase fraction of actively cycling cells, by dual labeling with fluorescence and peroxidase immunohistochemistry using BrdU (marker of S-phase) and Ki67 antibodies (marker of G1-, S-, G2-, and M-phases) after a one-step antigen retrieval. In the generative cell zones of fundic and pyloric glandular stomachs, where the majority of cells were cycling, the authors measured a proliferative activity of 31%. In the epithelium of the forestomach and the skin, where cycling cells are intermingled with G0 and differentiated cells, proliferative activities were 21% and 13%, respectively. In the adrenal cortex, in which cycling cells were sparsely distributed, the proliferative activity reached 32%. During the regenerative process in the skin after a lesion, the proliferative activity increased in proximity to the wound. The present one-step dual-labeling method has revealed that the proliferative activity is different between tissues and depends on the physiological or pathological state.

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