An important condition for the safe introduction of dynamic intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using a multileaf collimator (MLC) is the ability to verify the leaf trajectories. In order to verify IMRT using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID), the EPID response should be accurate and fast. Noninstantaneous dynamic response causes motion blurring. The aim of this study is to develop a measurement method to determine the magnitude of the geometrical error as a result of motion blurring for imagers with scanning readout. The response of a liquid-filled ionization chamber EPID, as an example of a scanning imager, on a moving beam is compared with the response of a diode placed at the surface of the EPID. The signals are compared under the assumption that all EPID rows measure the same dose rate when a straight moving field edge is imaged. The measurements are performed at several levels of attenuation to investigate the influence of dose rate on the response of the detector. The accuracy of the measurement method is better than 0.25 mm. We found that the liquid-filled ionization chamber EPID does not suffer from significant motion blurring under clinical circumstances. Using a maximum gradient edge detector to determine the field edge in an image obtained by a liquid-filled ionization chamber EPID, errors smaller than 1 mm are found at a dose rate of 105 MU/min and a field edge speed of 1.1 cm/s. The errors reduce at higher dose rates. The presented method is capable of quantifying the geometrical errors in determining the position of the edge of a moving field with subpixel accuracy. The errors in field edge position determined by a liquid-filled ionization chamber EPID are negligible in clinical practice. Consequently, these EPIDs are suitable for geometric IMRT verification, as far as dynamic response is concerned.
|Published - Mar 2001