Extraordinarily high optical contrast is instrumental to research and applications of two-dimensional materials, such as, for rapid identification of thickness, characterisation of optical properties, and quality assessment. With optimal designs of substrate structures and light illumination conditions, unprecedented optical contrast of MoS2 on Au surfaces exceeding 430% for monolayer and over 2600% for bilayer is achieved. This is realised on custom-designed substrates of near-zero reflectance near the normal incidence. In particular, by using an aperture stop to restrict the angle of incidence, high-magnification objectives can be made to achieve extraordinarily high optical contrast in a similar way as the low-magnification objectives, but still retaining the high spatial resolution capability. The technique will allow small flakes of micrometre size to be located easily and identified with great accuracy, which will have significant implications in many applications.