Aim: To investigate whether the sensory-motor impairment attributable to diabetic peripheral neuropathy would affect control of the accelerator pedal during a driving simulator task. Methods: A total of 32 active drivers, 11 with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (mean ± sd age 67±5.0 years), 10 with diabetes but no neuropathy (diabetes group; mean ± sd age 62±10 years), and 11 healthy individuals without diabetes (healthy group; mean ± sd age 60±11 years), undertook a test on a dynamometer to assess ankle plantar flexor muscle strength and ankle joint proprioception function of the right leg, in addition to a driving simulator task. The following variables were measured: maximal ankle plantar flexor muscle strength; speed of strength generation (Nm/s); and ankle joint proprioception (ankle repositioning error, degrees). In the driving simulator task, driving speed (mph), accelerator pedal signal (degrees) and the duration of specific ‘loss-of-control events’ (s) were measured during two drives (Drive 1, Drive 2). Results: Participants with diabetic peripheral neuropathy had a lower speed of strength generation (P<0.001), lower maximal ankle plantar flexor muscle strength (P<0.001) and impaired ankle proprioception (P=0.034) compared to healthy participants. The diabetic peripheral neuropathy group drove more slowly compared with the healthy group (Drive 1 P=0.048; Drive 2 P=0.042) and showed marked differences in the use of the accelerator pedal compared to both the diabetes group (P=0.010) and the healthy group (P=0.002). Participants with diabetic peripheral neuropathy had the longest duration of loss-of-control events, but after one drive, this was greatly reduced (P=0.023). Conclusions: Muscle function, ankle proprioception and accelerator pedal control are all affected in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, adversely influencing driving performance, but potential for improvement with targeted practice remains possible.