An emerging case for membrane pore formation as a common mechanism for the unconventional secretion of FGF2 and IL-1β

David Brough, Pablo Pelegrin, Walter Nickel

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Abstract

Extracellular proteins with important signalling roles in processes, such as inflammation and angiogenesis, are known to employ unconventional routes of protein secretion. Although mechanisms of unconventional protein secretion are beginning to emerge, the precise molecular details have remained elusive for the majority of cargo proteins secreted by unconventional means. Recent findings suggest that for two examples of unconventionally secreted proteins, interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), the common molecular principle of pore formation may be shared. Under specific experimental conditions IL-1β and FGF2 secretion are triggered by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2)- dependent formation of pores across the plasma membrane. However, the underlying mechanisms are different, with FGF2 known to directly interact with PI(4,5)P2 , whereas in the case of IL-1β secretion, it is proposed that the N-terminal fragment of gasdermin D interacts with PI(4,5)P2 to form the pore. Thus, although implemented in different ways, these findings suggest that pore formation may be shared by the unconventional secretion mechanisms for FGF2 and IL-1β in at least some cases. In this opinion article, we discuss the unconventional mechanisms of FGF2 and IL-1β release with a particular emphasis on recent discoveries suggesting the importance of pore formation on the plasma membrane.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Cell Science
Early online date4 Sept 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

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