An Extended Regional Gender Gaps Index (eRGGI): Comparative Measurement of Gender Equality at Different Levels of Regionality

C. Cascella, J. Williams, M. Pampaka

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Gender equality has been widely explored, but there is limited research investigating its variability at regional level. This paper aims to fill this gap by developing and validating a new, regional gender gaps index, compatible with previous indices used to compare gender equality across nations but now fit for the purpose of measuring gender equality across regions, within nations. To this end, we (i) reviewed existing indicators of gender equality; (ii) assessed the contribution of the indicators most frequently used in previous research to measure gender equality; (iii) developed an extended, regional version of the gender gaps index (eRGGI), by extending it to include new indicators able to capture female empowerment in developed countries, like Italy; and, (iv) explored the variability of gender equality across Italian regions. In developing our eRGGI, some indicators traditionally used to measure gender equality were removed and others were introduced to capture new dimensions of gender equality to suit modern conditions regarding contexts where equality is considered important, in contemporary Europe. Results showed that gender equality varies dramatically across regions, also confirming the relevance of the new indicators we proposed to add. Such results call for more caution in interpreting results based on nationally aggregated data to inform policy and practice, arguing for regional comparisons to become more prominent.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)757-800
Number of pages44
JournalSocial Indicators Research
Issue number2
Early online date11 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • Composite
  • Equality
  • Gaps
  • Gender
  • Index
  • Region


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