An update on interstitial lung disease

D Mudawi, K Heyes, R Hastings, P Rivera-Ortega, N Chaudhuri

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Interstitial lung diseases are a complex group of conditions that cause inflammation and scarring of the lung interstitium. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of common interstitial lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, connective tissue disease associated-interstitial lung disease, sarcoidosis and drug-induced interstitial lung disease. A multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis of interstitial lung disease is the gold standard; key history and examination features, blood panel, pulmonary function tests, high resolution computed tomography imaging, and when required bronchoalveolar lavage and lung biopsy results are discussed to reach a multidisciplinary consensus diagnosis. Advances, including the development of the disease-modifying anti-fibrotic medications nintedanib and pirfenidone, continue to shape the future management of interstitial lung disease. A holistic approach to the care of patients with interstitial lung disease is paramount, as they often have a high symptom burden and considerable palliative care needs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalBritish journal of hospital medicine (London, England : 2005)
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jul 2021


  • Connective tissue disease
  • Drug-induced interstitial lung disease
  • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
  • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
  • Interstitial lung disease
  • Sarcoidosis


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