Angstrofluidics: Walking to the Limit

Yi You, Abdulghani Ismail, Gwang Hyeon Nam, Solleti Goutham, Ashok Keerthi, Boya Radha

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Angstrom-scale fluidic channels are ubiquitous in nature and play an important role in regulating cellular traffic, signaling, and responding to stimuli. Synthetic angstrom channels are now a reality with the emergence of several cutting-edge bottom-up and top-down fabrication methods. In particular, the use of atomically thin 2D materials and nanotubes as components to build fluidic conduits has pushed the limits of fabrication to the angstrom scale. Here, we provide an overview of recent developments in the fabrication methods for nano- and angstrofluidic channels while categorizing them on the basis of dimensionality (0D pores, 1D tubes, 2D slits), along with the latest advances in measurement techniques. We discuss the ion transport governed by various stimuli in these channels and the variation of ionic mobility, streaming power, and osmotic power with pore size across all the dimensionalities. Finally, we highlight unique future opportunities in the development of smart ionic devices.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)189-218
Number of pages30
JournalAnnual Review of Materials Research
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • 2D materials
  • angstrofluidics
  • confinement
  • ion transport
  • molecular transport
  • nanofluidics


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