Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) has been used as a dual-functional material in a hybrid intervention system (ICCP-SS) which integrates the impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) and structural strengthening (SS). The mechanical behavior of CFRP as an anode has been investigated in some solution environments. However, the anodic and mechanical behavior of CFRP bonded to concrete is unclear. This paper focuses on the anodic and mechanical performance of CFRP bonded to the chloride-contaminated concrete by conducting an electrochemical (EC) test. The method of bonding the CFRP to the concrete and the shape of the steel embedded in the concrete were considered. The current densities of 20 mA/m2 and 100 mA/m2 were applied during 120-day and 310-day EC tests. The electrode potentials and driving voltages were recorded, and the bond interfaces of the CFRP were inspected after EC test. The residual tensile strength and failure modes of the CFRP were analyzed after tensile tests. Finally, the long-term performance of CFRP as a dual-functional material in ICCP-SS system was discussed. Results show that the externally bonding CFRP in ICCP-SS system can not only protect the steel in chloride-contaminated concrete effectively but also maintain 70% of the original tensile strength of CFRP at a charge density of 744 A·h/m2. The expected service period of CFRP as a dual-functional material bonded to the chloride-contaminated concrete was determined to be more than 42.5 years.