Introduction: Clinical trials have shown that apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) is better than calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (c-LDL-C) or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) as a target for statin treatment. However, there are no published reports of how well these targets are reached in patients with more severe hyperlipidaemias than represented in trials, as seen in lipid clinics. Methods: We audited 195 patients attending a tertiary centre lipid clinic, who had been treated with a statin for more than one year. We measured total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride and from these calculated LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-HDL-C. We determined the average measured apoB values, at critical target values of LDL-C and non-HDLC, by linear regression and compared them with values of apoB considered equivalent to these cholesterol indexes by expert groups. We also assessed the number of patients, both before and after treatment, in whom c-LDL-C and non-HDL-C could not be calculated due to hypertriglyceridaemia. Results: At the LDL-C target of 2.6 mmol L -1 and the non-HDL-C target of 3.4 mmol L -1, the measured apoB values were significantly higher than consensus apoB target values. The difference was most marked for c-LDL-C in hypertriglyceridaemic subjects and for non-HDL-C in patients without hypertriglyceridaemia. A similar pattern was seen using centile-derived consensus values but the differences were accentuated because this approach generates lower equivalent consensus apoB values. Conclusion: ApoB offers a more consistent treatment target independent of hypertriglyceridaemia and would obviate technical problems related to high triglycerides.