ARPES Signatures of Few-Layer Twistronic Graphenes

James E. Nunn, Andrew McEllistrim, Astrid Weston, Aitor Garcia-Ruiz, Matthew D. Watson, Marcin Mucha-Kruczynski, Cephise Cacho, Roman V. Gorbachev, Vladimir I. Fal’ko, Neil R. Wilson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Diverse emergent correlated electron phenomena have been observed in twisted-graphene layers. Many electronic structure predictions have been reported exploring this new field, but with few momentum-resolved electronic structure measurements to test them. We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to study the twist-dependent (1° < θ < 8°) band structure of twisted-bilayer, monolayer-on-bilayer, and double-bilayer graphene (tDBG). Direct comparison is made between experiment and theory, using a hybrid k·p model for interlayer coupling. Quantitative agreement is found across twist angles, stacking geometries, and back-gate voltages, validating the models and revealing field-induced gaps in twisted graphenes. However, for tDBG at θ = 1.5 ± 0.2°, close to the magic angle θ = 1.3°, a flat band is found near the Fermi level with measured bandwidth Ew = 31 ± 5 meV. An analysis of the gap between the flat band and the next valence band shows deviations between experiment (Δh = 46 ± 5 meV) and theory (Δh = 5 meV), indicative of lattice relaxation in this regime.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5201-5208
Number of pages8
JournalNano Letters
Issue number11
Early online date26 May 2023
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jun 2023


  • angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy
  • flat band
  • graphene
  • twistronics, moiré


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  • CDT in Science and Applications of Graphene and Related Nanomaterial

    Grigorieva, I., Burnett, H., Cusworth, E., Deaconu, D., Dumitriu-Iovanescu, A., Kang, Y., Little, J., Rees, E., Selles, F., Shaker, M., Soong, Y., Swindell, J., Tainton, G., Wood, H., Astles, T., Carl, A., Chen, G., Richard De Latour, H., Dowinton, O., Haskell, S., Hills, K., Hoole, C., Huang, Y., Kalsi, T., Powell, L., Quiligotti, K., Rimmer, J., Smith, L., Thornley, W., Yang, J., Young, W., Zhao, M., Al Busaidi, R., Al Ruqeishi, E., Chadha, A., Chen, M., Dennis, G., Dunn, E., Gamblen, E., Gao, Y., Georgantas, Y., Jiang, Z., Karakasidi, A., Mcellistrim, A., Meehan, M., Okwelogu, E., Taylor, M., Wang, W., Xin, B., Castle, C., Clout, P., Dean, S. D., Fordham, A., Griffin, E., Hardwick, T., Hawkins-Pottier, G., Jones, A., Lewthwaite, K., Monteil, S., Moulsdale, C., Mullan, C., Orts Mercadillo, V., Sanderson, D., Skliueva, I., Skuse, C., Steiner, P., Winstanley, B., Barry, D., Brooks, D., Cai, J., Chen, Y., Chen, C., Draude, A., Emmerson, C., Gavriliuc, V., Greaves, M., Higgins, E., Mcmaster, R., Mcnair, R., O'Brien, C., Peasey, A., Pinter, G., Shao, S., Thomas, D., Thomas, D., Tsim, L. T. B., Wengraf, J., Weston, A., Yu, T., De Libero, H., Chan, K. C., Tan, Y. T. & Thomson, T.


    Project: Other

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