Axial shrinkage-stress depends upon both C-factor and composite mass

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    413 Downloads (Pure)


    Objectives: To measure and then mathematically model polymerization stress-dependence upon systematic variations of C-factor (bonded/unbonded area ratio) for the Bioman instrument [1], recording stress by free cantilever-beam deflection; compliance 1.5 μm/MPa. Methods: A light-cured resin-composite (RZD103; Ivoclar) with 57% (v/v) 450 nm filler was studied. Facing surfaces: glass slab and steel rod-end, constituting the Bioman test chamber, being perpendicular to the measured axial stress-direction, were varied: (a) with rod-diameters (φ{symbol}), from 1 to 10 mm in 1 mm increments (with 0.8 mm gap height); and then (b) with gap heights (h) in 16 steps from 0.05 to 1.50 mm (with φ{symbol} = 10 mm). For each h and φ{symbol} combination, giving C-factors ranging from 0.6 to 100, shrinkage-stress was recorded for 1 h from start of 40 s irradiation at 600 mW cm-2 for photo-polymerization at 23 °C (n = 3). Shrinkage-stress (Sσ) was plotted directly as functions of h, φ{symbol}, and C and also per unit composite mass, (Sσg-1). ANOVA and Tukey's statistics were applied. Results: Series A-diameter variation; with C-factor increasing from 0.6 to 6, gave an exact exponential decrease in Sσ from 45 to 8 MPa. Series B-height variation; with C-factor increasing from 3 to 100, gave increasing Sσ from 1 to 8 MPa. Since composite mass played an equally dominant role, plots of stress-variations per unit composite mass, (Sσg-1) separated these effects, confirming progressive off-axial stress-relief with increasing h. Significance: (i) Values of h = 0.8 and φ{symbol} = 10 mm, recommended [1] for Bioman use, were confirmed as appropriate. Every lab instrument for measuring Sσ necessarily embodies specific C-factors and compliance values in the instrument design. (ii) Configuration (C) factor is recognized as an important parameter affecting manifestation of shrinkage-stress within restorative cavities and luting gaps. However, the restorative mass must equally be considered when translating shrinkage-science into specific clinical recommendations. © 2007 Academy of Dental Materials.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-8
    Number of pages7
    JournalDental Materials
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2008


    • C-factor
    • Polymerization shrinkage
    • Resin-composite
    • Stress


    Dive into the research topics of 'Axial shrinkage-stress depends upon both C-factor and composite mass'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this