Beliefs About One’s Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: The Experiences of Self-Injury Questionnaire (ESIQ)

Devon B Sandel, Khowla Jomar, Sheri L Johnson, Joanne M Dickson, Shannon Dandy, Rebecca Forrester, Peter Taylor

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Objective The goal of this study was to develop and validate a measure of self-rated positive and negative beliefs about one’s NSSI, the Experiences of Self-Injury Questionnaire (ESIQ).

Method Psychometric properties and validation against NSSI severity and shame were tested in two US and two UK samples of individuals who endorsed a history of NSSI.

Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated five factors. Subscales were labeled Positive Beliefs, Personal Dislike, Interpersonal Concern, Emotional Suppression, and Emotional Expression. The Positive Beliefs subscale covers beliefs that NSSI is valuable. Scores on this subscale were associated with endorsement of NSSI frequency, NSSI urges, and perceived likelihood of future NSSI. Other subscales showed validity in that they all showed unique effects on outcome indices of NSSI severity or shame.

Conclusion The ESIQ shows promise as a brief reliable measure of beliefs about and experiences of NSSI.
Original languageEnglish
JournalArchives of Suicide Research
Early online date30 Jan 2020
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 30 Jan 2020


  • NSSI
  • self-harm
  • cognitions
  • attitudes
  • psychometric


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