Beta-lactam target attainment and associated outcomes in patients with bloodstream infections

Mohammad H Alshaer, Nicole Maranchick, Kaitlin M Alexander, Kayihura Manigaba, Bethany R Shoulders, Timothy W Felton, Sumith K Mathew, Charles A Peloquin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: To evaluate the association between early and cumulative beta-lactam pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters and therapy outcomes in bloodstream infection (BSI). Methods: Adult patients who received cefepime, meropenem, or piperacillin/tazobactam for BSI and had concentrations measured were included. Beta-lactam exposure was generated and the time that free concentration remained above the minimum inhibitory concentration (fT >MIC) and four multiples of MIC (fT >4 × MIC) were calculated for times 0-24 h and 0-7 days of therapy. Multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of PK/PD on microbiological and clinical outcomes. Results: A total of 204 patients and 213 BSI episodes were included. The mean age was 58 years and weight 83 kg. Age, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, haemodialysis, Pitt bacteraemia score, and hours of empiric antibiotic therapy were significantly associated with certain outcomes and retained in the final model. In multiple regression analysis, fT >4 × MIC at 0-24 h and 0-7 days was a significant predictor of negative blood culture on day 7 (P=0.0161 and 0.0068, respectively). In the time-to-event analysis, patients who achieved 100% fT >4 × MIC at 0-24 h and 0-7 days had a shorter time to negative blood culture compared with those who did not (log-rank P=0.0004 and 0.0014, respectively). No significant associations were identified between PK/PD parameters and other outcomes, including improvement in symptoms at day 7 and 30-day mortality. Conclusion: Early and cumulative achievement of fT >4 × MIC was a significant predictor of microbiological outcome in patients with BSI.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106727
JournalInternational Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Issue number3
Early online date14 Jan 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2023


  • beta-lactams
  • bloodstream infections
  • pharmacodynamic
  • pharmacokinetic


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