Bid binding to negatively charged phospholipids may not be required for its pro-apoptotic activity in vivo

Anna Manara, Jennefer Lindsay, Marta Marchioretto, Alessandra Astegno, Andrew P. Gilmore, Mauro Degli Esposti, Massimo Crimi

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Bid is a ubiquitous pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family that has been involved in a variety of pathways of cell death. Unique among pro-apoptotic proteins, Bid is activated after cleavage by the apical caspases of the extrinsic pathway; subsequently it moves to mitochondria, where it promotes the release of apoptogenic proteins in concert with other Bcl-2 family proteins like Bak. Diverse factors appear to modulate the pro-apoptotic action of Bid, from its avid binding to mitochondrial lipids (in particular, cardiolipin) to multiple phosphorylations at sites that can modulate its caspase cleavage. This work addresses the question of how the lipid interactions of Bid that are evident in vitro actually impact on its pro-apoptotic action within cells. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we identified mutations that reduced mouse Bid lipid binding in vitro. Mutation of the conserved residue Lys157 specifically decreased the binding to negatively charged lipids related to cardiolipin and additionally affected the rate of caspase cleavage. However, this lipid-binding mutant had no discernable effect on Bid pro-apoptotic function in vivo. The results are interpreted in relation to an underlying interaction of Bid with lysophosphatidylcholine, which is not disrupted in any mutant retaining pro-apoptotic function both in vitro and in vivo. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)997-1010
    Number of pages13
    JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids
    Issue number10
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2009


    • Apoptosis
    • Bid
    • Caspase 8
    • Mitochondria
    • Phospholipids


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