Biliary tract cancer: Implicated immune-mediated pathways and their associated potential targets.

Noor-Ul-Ain Tariq, A. Vogel, Mairead Mcnamara, Juan Valle

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There is a well-established link between biliary tract cancers (BTC) and chronic inflammatory conditions such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, chronic cholecystitis, chronic cholelithiasis, liver fluke-associated infestations, and chronic viral hepatic infections. These associated risk factors highlight the potential for development of immune-modulatory agents in this poor-prognostic disease group with limited treatment options. Clinical trials have evaluated the role of immune cells, inflammatory biomarkers, vaccines, cytokines, adoptive cell therapy, and immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with BTC. Although these have demonstrated the importance of the immune environment in BTC, currently none of the immune-based therapies have been approved for use in this disease group. The role of immunomodulatory agents is a developing field and has yet to find its way 'from bench to bedside' in BTC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)298-304
Number of pages7
JournalOncology Research and Treatment
Issue number5
Early online date26 Apr 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2018


  • Biliary tract cancer
  • Immunotherapy
  • immune check-point inhibitors
  • Biliary tract cancer
  • Immunotherapy
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors

Research Beacons, Institutes and Platforms

  • Manchester Cancer Research Centre


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