Billboards and Customer Retention: From AIDA to AIDAR?

John L. Fortenberry, Peter McGoldrick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Many researchers neglect the wider capabilities of billboards. Self-fulfilling beliefs evolve, whereby managers deploy billboards to generate awareness, evaluated through awareness tracking studies, thus reinforcing beliefs. This investigation examines assumptions that billboards primarily serve initial attraction roles, early stage effects in hierarchies such as AIDA.Study One (1,190 consumers) provides clear indications that billboards also affect existing customers and re-patronage decisions. In Study Two, many among 241 experienced marketing executives recognize additional billboard roles in assisting reinforcement and customer retention. Based on these studies and evidence from related fields, it is timely to suggest a logical progression to “AIDAR”.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Advertising Research
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 24 Oct 2018


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