Bis(4-methyl phenyl)iodonium as an alternative component to diphenyliodonium in camphorquinone-based ternary initiating systems

Karina C. Verzola, Diogo Dressano, Cintia Helena Coury Saraceni, Luciano Souza Gonçalves, Mohammed Hadis, David Watts, William M. Palin, Adriano Fonseca Lima

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Objective: To evaluate the influence of different co-initiators (diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate - DPI - and bis(4-methyl phenyl)iodonium hexafluorophosphate – BPI) on chemical and mechanical properties of resins. Methods: Nine experimental resins (50% Bis-GMA and 50% TEGDMA, w/w) with 60 wt% filler particles were formulated. The initiating system used was camphorquinone (CQ-1 mol%) and ethyl dimethylaminobenzoate (EDAB-2 mol%). Experimental groups were established according to DPI and BPI quantities (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 mol%). The control group was a resin containing only CQ-EDAB. Light transmission through the resin during polymerisation was analysed with a UV–vis spectrophotometer. Real-time polymerisation of the systems was evaluated using an FTIR spectrometer. Real-time polymerisation shrinkage strain was evaluated, and the flexural strength and modulus of materials were obtained by 3-point bending. Experimental groups were statistically analysed by Analysis of Variance and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Dunnett's test was applied to compare experimental groups with control. Results: Light transmission rapidly increased initially for resins containing DPI or BPI. After 30 s cure, the irradiance on the lower surface of resin specimens was similar for all groups. After 10 s of light irradiation, groups containing DPI and BPI had higher conversion than the control. However, conversion after 120 s post-irradiation was similar for all groups. The rate of polymerisation, shrinkage strain, and the maximum strain rate were higher for groups containing DPI/BPI. The use of iodonium salts increased the flexural strength and flexural moduli of resins. Significance: DPI and BPI increased resin reactivity similarly. Increased rate of polymerization influenced light transmission through the resin in the first seconds of polymerisation and increased resin shrinkage and rate of shrinkage, as well as flexural strength and moduli.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1282-1288
Number of pages7
JournalDental Materials
Issue number10
Early online date18 Jul 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2020


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