Breast cancer: Current and future endocrine therapies

Carlo Palmieri, Darren K. Patten, Adam Januszewski, Giorgia Zucchini, Sacha J. Howell

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Endocrine therapy forms a central modality in the treatment of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. The routine use of 5. years of adjuvant tamoxifen has improved survival rates for early breast cancer, and more recently has evolved in the postmenopausal setting to include aromatase inhibitors. The optimal duration of adjuvant endocrine therapy remains an active area of clinical study with recent data supporting 10. years rather than 5. years of adjuvant tamoxifen. However, endocrine therapy is limited by the development of resistance, this can occur by a number of possible mechanisms and numerous studies have been performed which combine endocrine therapy with agents that modulate these mechanisms with the aim of preventing or delaying the emergence of resistance. Recent trial data regarding the combination of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, everolimus with endocrine therapy have resulted in a redefinition of the clinical treatment pathway in the metastatic setting. This review details the current endocrine therapy utilized in both early and advanced disease, as well as exploring potential new targets which modulate pathways of resistance, as well as agents which aim to modulate adrenal derived steroidogenic hormones. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)695-723
    Number of pages28
    JournalMolecular and Cellular Endocrinology
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 25 Jan 2014


    • Breast cancer
    • Endocrine therapy
    • Targeted therapy


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