CONTEXT: The role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) during active surveillance (AS) of prostate cancer needs evaluation. It remains unclear whether mp-MRI can replace prostate biopsies completely during AS.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of mp-MRI for disease progression in men on AS for prostate cancer.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: This systematic review was performed in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA). Cross-sectional studies that evaluate the diagnostic performance of mp-MRI (index test) for disease progression compared with systematic and targeted prostate/template biopsies or a composite of this (reference standard) were included. A meta-analysis was performed using STATA with "metandi" and "midas" commands.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Seven studies with 800 patients were included in this systematic review. The pooled pathological progression rate was 27%. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of mp-MRI for disease progression were 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.46-0.74) and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.54-0.91), respectively. Adjusting for a prevalence of disease progression of 30% results in a positive predictive value of 0.43 (95% CI: 0.39-0.46) and a negative predictive value of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.78-0.84). Significant heterogeneity was observed. The meta-regression analysis did not demonstrate any significant outliers.
CONCLUSIONS: It is not possible to supplant prostate biopsies with mp-MRI in AS protocols with the current level of evidence. There is significant institutional variation in the diagnostic performance of mp-MRI during AS. Institutions must internally audit the diagnostic performance of mp-MRI in the AS setting. AS protocols must be based on local diagnostic performance, rather than on international AS protocols that may have limited applicability at individual settings.
PATIENT SUMMARY: In this review, we explored the accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosing disease progression for patients who were enrolled in active surveillance programmes for prostate cancer.
- Active surveillance
- Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging
- Prostate biopsy
- Prostate cancer
Research Beacons, Institutes and Platforms
- Manchester Cancer Research Centre