Carcinoid tumors of the duodenum and the ampulla of Vater: current diagnostic and therapeutic approach in a series of 8 patients. Case series

George C Nikou, Christos Toubanakis, Konstantinos G Moulakakis, Spiridon Pavlatos, Christos Kosmidis, Elias Mallas, Panayiotis Safioleas, George H Sakorafas, Michael C Safioleas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


AIM: To describe the specific characteristics of duodenal/perivaterian carcinoids and to analyze the diagnostic/therapeutic approach.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight patients were included in our study. Symptoms on admission included dyspepsia, upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and anemia. All patients underwent upper GI endoscopy and gastrointestinal peptides (gastrin) and neuroendocrine markers (Chromogranin-A, CgA) measurement. Imaging studies were performed in all patients, including OCTREOSCAN, while in patients with ACs MRCP or ERCP was also performed, when necessary. Definite diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination.

RESULTS: Polypoid masses (carcinoids) were revealed at duodenal bulb and ampulla of Vater, in 5 and 3 patients, respectively. Serum gastrin was moderately increased in 4 patients, while in one patient it was more than 1000 pg/ml. Serum CgA was moderately increased in one patient, in whom OCTREOSCAN detected a solitary hepatic metastasis. Two patients with DC, of less than 1 cm of diameter, were treated by endoscopic polypectomy, while all the other patients underwent surgery. The patient with hepatic metastasis and positive OCTREOSCAN received also Octreotide LAR, resulting in stabilization of disease. No recurrence or metastases were observed during follow-up (range : 1.5-9.6 years).

CONCLUSIONS: In DC tumors <1 cm endoscopic excision with close follow-up is an adequate treatment, while in tumors >1 cm and in AC, surgical resection is the treatment of choice. In metastatic tumors, resection of the primary lesion with administration of somatostatin analogues may stabilize the disease and improve patient's quality of life.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)248-53
Number of pages6
JournalInternational journal of surgery (London, England)
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Ampulla of Vater
  • Carcinoid Tumor/diagnosis
  • Common Bile Duct Neoplasms/diagnosis
  • Duodenal Neoplasms/diagnosis
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis
  • Male
  • Middle Aged


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