Catalytic Electrophilic C-H Borylation using NHC·Boranes and Iodine Forms C2-, not C3-, Borylated Indoles

John Mcgough, Jessica Cid, Michael Ingleson

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    Abstract

    Activation of N-heterocyclic carbene boranes (NHC·BH3) by I2 enables the metal free catalytic C-H borylation of heteroarenes with formation of H2 as the by-product in a process that uses only bench stable precursors. The borylation of indoles using NHCBH3/I2 produces C2-borylated indoles exclusively in contrast to other catalytic electrophilic C-H borylation methods. Mechanistic studies indicate that this is due to C3 to C2 boron migration facilitated by the absence of exogenous Brønsted bases. Thus this C-H borylation methodology proceeds under sufficiently Brønsted acidic conditions to enable the thermodynamic C2-borylated indole isomer to be formed instead of the C3 borylated-isomer. This demonstrates that electrophilic C-H borylation can be used to access a wider range of borylated regioisomers than reported to date.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalChemistry: A European Journal
    Volume23
    Issue number34
    Early online date9 May 2017
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2017

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