Categorical attribute based centrality: E-I and G-F centrality

Martin G. Everett, Stephen P. Borgatti

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In a paper examining informal networks and organizational crisis, Krackhardt and Stern (1988) proposed a measure assessing the extent to which relations in a network were internal to a group as opposed to external. They called their measure the E-I index. The measure is now in wide use and is implemented in standard network packages such as UCINET (Borgatti et al., 2002). The measure is based on a partition-based degree centrality measure and as such can be extended to other centrality measures and group level data. We explore extensions to closeness, betweenness and eigenvector centrality, and show how to apply the technique to sets of subgroups that do not form a partition. In addition, the extension to betweenness suggests a linkage to the Gould and Fernandez brokerage measures, which we explore. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)562-569
Number of pages7
JournalSocial Networks
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2012


  • Brokerage roles
  • Categorical attributes
  • Centrality
  • E-I index


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