Characteristics of betatron radiation in AWAKE Run 2 experiment

Linbo Liang, Hossein Saberi, Guoxing Xia, John Patrick Farmer, Alexander Pukhov

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The oscillating relativistic electrons in the accelerating/focusing wakefields of plasma accelerators emit electromagnetic radiation known as betatron radiation (BR). The proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration has been demonstrated in the Advanced Wakefield Experiment (AWAKE) at CERN; however, its accompanying radiation emission is less explored compared with those in the laser- and electron beam-driven plasma accelerators. In this paper, a detailed simulation study of BR in the AWAKE is presented. Considering the new set-up of the AWAKE Run 2 (2021–), the radiation emission from both the witness electron beam and the seeding electron beam is investigated using particle-in-cell simulations. The influence of radial size mismatch and misaligned off-axis injection on the witness beam dynamics, as well as the spectral features of the relevant BR are studied. These non-ideal electron injections are likely to occur in experiment. The proton self-modulation stage is also investigated with a close look at the seeding electron beam dynamics and its BR. As a footprint of the emitting particles, BR can provide valuable information about the beam dynamics. Some practical challenges to implement the betatron diagnostic in the AWAKE Run 2 experiment are also addressed.
Original languageEnglish
Article number965890301
JournalJournal of Plasma Physics
Issue number3
Early online date19 Jun 2023
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jun 2023


  • plasma simulation
  • plasma diagnostics
  • intense particle beams


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