Upon heating, hydrated magnesium carbonates (HMCs) undergo a continuous sequence of decomposition reactions. This study aims to investigate the thermal decomposition of various commercially produced HMCs classified as light and heavy, highlight their differences, and provide an insight into their compositions in accordance with the results obtained from thermal analysis and microstructure studies. An understanding of the chemical compositions and microstructures, and a better knowledge of the reactions that take place during the decomposition of HMCs were achieved through the use of SEM, XRD, and TG/differential thermal analysis (DTA). The quantification of their CO2 contents was provided by TG and dissolving the samples in HCl acid. Results show that variations exist within the microstructure and decomposition patterns of the two groups of HMCs, which do not exactly fit into the fixed stoichiometry of the known HMCs in the MgO–CO2–H2O system. The occurrence of an exothermic DTA peak was only observed for the heavy HMCs, which was attributed to their high CO2 contents and the relatively delayed decomposition pattern.