Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis is Common among Patients with Presumed Tuberculosis Relapse in Ghana

Bright K Ocansey, Benjamin Otoo, Abraham Adjei, Hafisatu Gbadamosi, Fleischer C N Kotey, Chris Kosmidis, Jane S Afriyie-Mensah, David W Denning, Japheth A Opintan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) may mimic pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The two diseases are clinically indistinguishable and may result in CPA misdiagnosed as PTB or vice versa. Although, PTB is largely recognised as a differential diagnosis of CPA and often ruled out prior to CPA diagnosis, the converse is uncommon. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of CPA cases among patients being assessed for PTB. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among consecutive patients referred for GeneXpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) test for the diagnosis of PTB at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana. Patients’ demographics, clinical and socioeconomic details were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Blood was collected for Aspergillus and HIV serology, and sputum samples obtained for Aspergillus culture. Chest radiograph was obtained, and computed tomography (CT) scan was also done for patients with positive Aspergillus serology or cavitation. CPA was defined using an algorithm developed by the Global Action for Fungal Infections (GAFFI) international expert panel. One hundred and fifty-four patients were included in the analysis, of whom 134 (87%) did not have a prior PTB diagnosis. There were 41 (26.6%) GeneXpert positive cases. CPA prevalence was 9.7% overall, but 50% in patients with a prior history of PTB and 3.7% in those without previous PTB. Although CPA is rarely considered as a differential diagnosis of PTB in Ghana, our findings show that CPA may affect half of patients being assessed for PTB relapse. Efforts to diagnose CPA should be prioritised in this patient group.
Original languageEnglish
JournalMedical Mycology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 9 Sept 2022


  • Animals
  • Aspergillus
  • Chronic Disease
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Ghana/epidemiology
  • Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis
  • Recurrence
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis
  • Tuberculosis/veterinary


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