Clinical and histopathologic predictors of recurrent glomerulonephritis after kidney transplantation

Chukwuma Chukwu, Christopher Holmberg, Josh Storrar, Rachel Middleton, Smeeta Sinha, Philip Kalra, Howida Shawki, Anirudh Rao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction
We evaluated the long-term outcomes of recurrent glomerulonephritis (RGN) using clinical, histopathological, and demographic predictors.

Methods
A retrospective cohort study of kidney transplant recipients (KTR) in two renal centers between 2005 and 2020. Clinical and native kidney histological data were analyzed. The risk factors and outcomes of each primary glomerulonephritis subtype were assessed using Cox methods.

Result
336 recipients with primary glomerulonephritis were analyzed. RGN was diagnosed in 17%, 20%, 25%, and 13% of recipients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), membranous nephropathy (MN) and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), respectively. Median time to recurrence was shortest in FSGS (.6 years IQR .2-2.9) and longest in MN (6.3 years IQR 3.3-8.0) whereas time to graft loss after diagnosis was shortest in MPGN (.3 years IQR .1-1.7) and longest in IgAN (2.9 year IQR 1.3-4.3). Recipients with recurrent IgAN were likely to be younger, have higher proteinuria at diagnosis, receive living donor allografts, receive cyclosporine treatment, have a history of acute rejection, and have segmental sclerosis in native glomeruli. Younger age of the donors, higher proteinuria at diagnosis, alemtuzumab, proteinuria within the first 12 months, acute rejection, low baseline eGFR, mesangial proliferation, and IgG and IgA deposits were associated with FSGS recurrence. MPGN recurrence was predicted by lower BMI at transplantation, and crescentic native disease. Death-censored graft survival at 5-, 10-, and 15-years was 83%, 51%, and 29% in the RGN group and 95%, 93%, and 84%, respectively in the non-RGN group. Over 15 years, recipients with RGN are nine times more likely than those without RGN to lose their grafts, regardless of donor type, acute rejection, and baseline eGFR. Transplant recipients of related donor allograft were not more likely to have recurrent GN than non-related donors.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere14970
Number of pages13
JournalClinical Transplantation
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 23 Mar 2023

Keywords

  • Allograft loss
  • Graft survival
  • Kidney Transplantation
  • Recurrent glomerulonephritis
  • Recurrent IgA nephropathy
  • Recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

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