Clinical risk associated with COVID-19 among 86000 patients with congenital heart disease

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective To determine the magnitude of any excess risk of mortality and hospitalisation due to COVID-19 infection in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) in the UK healthcare system. Methods Matched case-control study within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink study of anonymised general practice records in the National Health Service in England. Patients with CHD were stratified for disease severity according to the European Society of Cardiology guidelines. Presence of a positive COVID-19 test, hospitalisation with a diagnosis of COVID-19 and COVID-19-related mortality were compared in case and control groups. Results 86 441 patients with CHD and 335 839 controls were studied. Of patients with a positive COVID-19 test, patients with CHD were more likely than controls to be hospitalised (22.4% vs 14.5%; OR=1.77 (95% CI 1.60 to 1.96); p=2.11e-28) and suffer COVID-19-related death (6.1% vs 3.8%; OR=1.60 (95% CI 1.35 to 1.89); p=7.00e-08). The excess risk of COVID-19 hospitalisation and death rose with increasing physiological severity of CHD (presence of pulmonary vascular disease and/or cyanosis), rather than anatomical complexity. Conclusions In this study of the COVID-19 pandemic experience, using population health records in over 86000 patients with CHD in England, patients with CHD with COVID-19 were at around 50-75% higher risk of hospitalisation and mortality compared with matched controls with COVID-19. We provide the first primary care-derived estimates for COVID-19 hospitalisation and case-fatality rates in patients with CHD. Some factors predictive of worse COVID-19 outcome in general populations (such as non-white ethnic group), and other CHD-specific comorbidities (such as pulmonary hypertension), influenced outcomes among patients with CHD.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere002415
JournalOpen Heart
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 14 Dec 2023


  • COVID-19/diagnosis
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Pandemics
  • State Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Clinical risk associated with COVID-19 among 86000 patients with congenital heart disease'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this