Co-development of an evidence-based personalised smoking cessation intervention for use in a lung cancer screening context

Harriet D. Quinn-Scoggins, Rachael L. Murray, Samantha L. Quaife, Pamela Smith, Kate E. Brain, Matthew E.J. Callister, David R. Baldwin, John Britton, Philip A.J. Crosbie, Rebecca Thorley, Grace M. McCutchan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Optimising smoking cessation services within a low radiation-dose computed tomography (LDCT) lung cancer screening programme has the potential to improve cost-effectiveness and overall efficacy of the programme. However, evidence on the optimal design and integration of cessation services is limited. We co-developed a personalised cessation and relapse prevention intervention incorporating medical imaging collected during lung cancer screening. The intervention is designed to initiate and support quit attempts among smokers attending screening as part of the Yorkshire Enhanced Stop Smoking study (YESS: ISRCTN63825779). Patients and public were involved in the development of an intervention designed to meet the needs of the target population. Methods: An iterative co-development approach was used. Eight members of the public with a history of smoking completed an online survey to inform the visual presentation of risk information in subsequent focus groups for acceptability testing. Three focus groups (n = 13) were conducted in deprived areas of Yorkshire and South Wales with members of the public who were current smokers or recent quitters (within the last year). Exemplar images of the heart and lungs acquired by LDCT, absolute and relative lung cancer risk, and lung age were shown. Data were analysed thematically, and discussed in stakeholder workshops. Draft versions of the intervention were developed, underpinned by the Extended Parallel Processing Model to increase self-efficacy and response-efficacy. The intervention was further refined in a second stakeholder workshop with a patient panel. Results: Individual LDCT scan images of the lungs and heart, in conjunction with artistic impressions to facilitate interpretation, were considered by public participants to be most impactful in prompting cessation. Public participants thought it important to have a trained practitioner guiding them through the intervention and emphasising the short-term benefits of quitting. Presentation of absolute and relative risk of lung cancer and lung age were considered highly demotivating due to reinforcement of fatalistic beliefs. Conclusion: An acceptable personalised intervention booklet utilising LDCT scan images has been developed for delivery by a trained smoking cessation practitioner. Our findings highlight the benefit of co-development during intervention development and the need for further evaluation of effectiveness.

Original languageEnglish
Article number478
JournalBMC Pulmonary Medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2022


  • Co-development
  • Emphysema
  • Imaging/CT MRI
  • Intervention
  • Lung cancer
  • Lung cancer screening
  • Patient and public involvement
  • Smoking cessation


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