Combining wire and coaxial powder feeding in laser direct metal deposition for rapid prototyping

Waheed Ul Haq Syed, Andrew J. Pinkerton, Lin Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Powder and wire deposition have been used separately in many laser-cladding, rapid prototyping and other additive manufacturing applications. In this paper, a new approach is investigated by simultaneously feeding powder from a coaxial nozzle and wire from an off-axis nozzle into the deposition melt pool. Multilayer parts are built from 316L steel using a 1.5 kW diode laser and different configurations of the powder and wire nozzles are compared in terms of surface roughness, deposition rate, porosity and microstructure. The parts are analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy techniques. Results show that deposition efficiency increased and surface roughness decreased with the combined process; some porosity was present in samples produced by this method, but it was 20-30% less than in samples produced by powder alone. Wire injection angles into the melt pool in both horizontal and vertical planes were found to be significant for attaining high deposition efficiency and good surface quality. Reasons for the final sample characteristics and differences between the combined process and the separate powder and wire feeding techniques are discussed. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4803-4808
Number of pages5
JournalApplied Surface Science
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2006


  • Coaxial powder feeding
  • Diode laser
  • Direct metal deposition
  • Wire feeding


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