Composite particle algorithm for sustainable integrated dynamic ship routing and scheduling optimization

Arijit De, Vamsee Krishna Reddy Mamanduru, Angappa Gunasekaran, Nachiappan Subramanian, Manoj Kumar Tiwari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Ship routing and scheduling problem is considered to meet the demand for various products in multiple ports within the planning horizon. The ports have restricted operating time, so multiple time windows are taken into account. The problem addresses the operational measures such as speed optimisation and slow steaming for reducing carbon emission. A Mixed Integer Non-Linear Programming (MINLP) model is presented and it includes the issues pertaining to multiple time horizons, sustainability aspects and varying demand and supply at various ports. The formulation incorporates several real time constraints addressing the multiple time window, varying supply and demand, carbon emission, etc. that conceive a way to represent several complicating scenarios experienced in maritime transportation. Owing to the inherent complexity, such a problem is considered to be NP-Hard in nature and for solutions an effective meta-heuristics named Particle Swarm Optimization-Composite Particle (PSO-CP) is employed. Results obtained from PSO-CP are compared using PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) and GA (Genetic Algorithm) to prove its superiority. Addition of sustainability constraints leads to a 4-10% variation in the total cost. Results suggest that the carbon emission, fuel cost and fuel consumption constraints can be comfortably added to the mathematical model for encapsulating the sustainability dimensions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)201-215
Number of pages15
JournalComputers and Industrial Engineering
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 8 Apr 2016


  • Carbon emission
  • Maritime transportation
  • Mixed Integer Non-Linear Programming
  • Particle Swarm Optimization-Composite Particle
  • Ship routing


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