COVID-19 Vaccination and Diabetes Mellitus: How Much Has It Made a Difference to Outcomes Following Confirmed COVID-19 Infection?

Adrian Heald, David A Jenkins, Richard Williams, Rajshekhar Mudaliar, Asma Naseem, Kelly A Bowden Davies, Martin Gibson, Yonghong Peng, William Ollier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Since early 2020 the whole world has been challenged by the SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19), its successive variants and the associated pandemic caused. We have previously shown that for people living with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), the risk of being admitted to hospital or dying following a COVID-19 infection progressively decreased through the first months of 2021. In this subsequent analysis we have examined how the UK COVID-19 vaccination programme impacted differentially on COVID-19 outcomes in people with T1DM or T2DM compared to appropriate controls. Methods: T1DM and T2DM affected individuals were compared with their matched controls on 3:1 ratio basis. A 28-day hospital admission or mortality was used as the binary outcome variable with diabetes status and vaccination for COVID-19 as the main exposure variables. Results: A higher proportion of T1DM individuals vs their controls was found to be vaccinated at the point of their first recorded positive COVID-19 test when compared to T2DM individuals vs their controls. Regarding the 28-day hospital admission rate, there was a greater and increasing protective effect of subsequent vaccination dosage (one, two or three) in mitigating the effects of COVID-19 infection versus no vaccination in T1DM than in T2DM individuals when compared with matched controls. Similar effects were observed in T2DM for death. Across both diabetes and non-diabetes individuals, those at greater socio-economic disadvantage were more likely to test positive for COVID-19 in the early phase of the pandemic. For T2DM individuals socio-economic disadvantage was associated with a greater likelihood of hospital admission and death, independent of vaccination status. Age and male sex were also independently associated with 28-day hospital admission in T2DM and to 28-day mortality, independent of vaccination status. African ethnicity was also an additional factor for hospital admission in people with T2DM. Conclusion: A beneficial effect of COVID-19 vaccination was seen in mitigating the harmful effects of COVID-19 infection; this was manifest in reduced hospital admission rate in T1DM individuals with a lesser effect in T2DM when compared with matched controls, regarding both hospital admission and mortality. Socio-economic disadvantage influenced likelihood of COVID-19 confirmed infection and the likelihood of hospital admission/death independent of the number of vaccinations given in T2DM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalDiabetes Therapy
Publication statusPublished - 7 Dec 2022


  • COVID-19
  • Outcome
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • T1DM
  • T2DM
  • Vaccination


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